Disadvantage: prone to suckering (prune or break off at least once per year). It has good fireblight resistance and cold-hardiness. Trees on M.7 EMLA produce a semi-dwarf tree about 60 to 70% as big as seedling. Resistant to fireblight, powdery mildew, and root collar rot. It is also tolerant of wet conditions / phytophthora. Bush, Centre leader / spindlebush, Large cordons, Fan or espalier. It is significantly more productive than M7 and M9, particularly in replant situations, and much more precocious than M7 or M26. 15 to 20 . The apple rootstock plantings at the University of Minnesota have all been located at the Horticultural Research Center, part of the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. Thus, apple rootstocks are divided into groups based on the ability to dwarf the scion. It is not resistant to replant syndrome. Small centre leader / spindlebush, Cordons, oblique cordons, Small espalier / fan. Suitable forms:
The following is something the Canadian Dept of Ag published to describe M7 and 111. In replant situations, it is common to have lack of vigor contributing to an undersized, low-yielding orchard. Featured. One of the original Malling series rootstocks, widely planted in North America, and noticeably more vigorous than M26. It belongs to Malling series which was developed at the East Malling Station England. 3 to 5. hardy ; drought resistant; well anchored; M7 (semi-dwarf) 12 to 14. It is a good choice for a traditional orchard. If you have specific requirements please contact us. There is a wide range of apple rootstocks in Australia. Apple rootstocks can have a variety of desirable characteristics such as resistance to crown rot oomycetes (Phytophthora spp. Budagovsky 118 (B 118) A vigorous, semi-dwarf rootstock that produces trees roughly the same size as those grown on EMLA 111 roots. It is increasingly used in commercial orchards as a replacement for M9, planted at 2ft or 3ft spacings. For scion varieties with average or high vigor, G.935 can be considered a small semi-dwarf rootstock, producing a tree a bit smaller than M26 - but more productive. However, they did not assess the in vitro … 12 to 15. Ground around the tree should be kept weed-free (e.g. MM111 is also noted for its good drought tolerance when mature - thanks to its extensive spreading root system. Suitable forms:
Characteristics of Apple Rootstocks Rootstock Size1 Fruiting Anchorage Hardiness Soil Adaptability Crown Rot Fire Blight Remarks Seedling 100% Slow bearing, yield variable but generally low Well anchored Considered hardy, but variable Widely adapted Variable Tolerant 65-85% size control with spur-type Red Delicious strains; some size control with other spur-type strains. Probably the best rootstock of any size class if your ground is subject to flooding - but it must be staked. The lower snow cover and temperature swings lately will likely test the marginal species here. Trees are moderately precocious and may lean with some cultivars and may require trunk support. These rootstocks each have a characteristic effect on the scion variety growing on top. Half-standard, Bush, Large centre leader / spindlebush, Large fan or espalier. Not as productive as G.11, but probably a better choice in the South, where WAA is a problem. Although this rootstock produces many suckers, it is very cold-hardy and results in a heavy-bearing tree. Geneva®30 (G30) A fire blight resistant M7 size tree from Cornell University ; It is precocious and needs support ; Geneva® 'G.41' Geneva® 'G.11' Geneva® 'G.935' Geneva® 'G.890' Coming Soon: Geneva® 'G.214' and Geneva® 'G.210' T337 . Mature tree size may differ in other climates and... $3.50 It is also very cold-hardy. For apple growers, choosing a rootstock type can be a bit overwhelming. Trees with cultivars such as ‘Gala’, ‘Stayman’, and ‘Granny Smith’ tend to lean excessively and require support. Factor in the grower’s expectations, and the spectrum of interaction between all of those considerations makes rootstock selection all the more difficult. The produces good fruit size and wide branch angles. 118 also confers some fireblight resistance (although not as much as the Geneva-series rootstocks). An old rootstock that dates back to 1688, M7 produces semidwarf trees. Suitable forms:
Selections from the East Malling Research Station, Kent, England, were introduced to commercial fruit production as a means to control tree vigor, promote early fruiting and improve tree efficiency. Apple Rootstocks . It can be considered roughly equivalent to the MM106 Apple rootstock. Induces early and heavy bearing. Geneva 969 (G.969) is a semidwarfing rootstock that is resistant to fire blight, crown rot, and woolly apple aphid with good cold hardiness. 20 or more. G.30 is very well anchored but nevertheless permanent staking or support is essential for trees on this rootstock, because of the weight of apples it can produce which on some varieties can over-stress the graft union. Geneva® rootstock descriptions are based on New York growing conditions. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Choosing the correct rootstock can be the difference between a tree thriving or dying on your site. APPLE Rootstock. M.7 EMLA has been widely planted since the 1960s with cultivars such as ‘McIntosh’, ‘Empire’, ‘Cortland’, ‘Golden Delicious’ and spur strains of ‘Delicious’. M7 G6210 G6879 G8189 iAu514 iAu568 G6976 18 G5890 G6001 G6253 G4013 TEB M2 G4213 TEC G5463 G6589 G6024 X-2) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5) Performance of Fuji with 53 Rootstocks (Crist Bros. collaborated efforts between East Malling and the John Inn Institute ,Merton started in 1922 and intensified in 1928, leading to Merton Immune series (MI778-793) in 1930 and Malling Merton series(MM101-115) in the 1950.All were resistant to woolly apple aphid. Already in heavy production in New Zealand. This rootstock is moderately susceptible to blight and collar rot. G.935 was developed by Cornell University for low-vigor commercial varieties such as HoneyCrisp and PixieCrunch, where a dwarf tree is required but an M9-class rootstock would be too weak. 15 to 20. Bud. Extremely vigorous for a dwarfing rootstock, trees on M26 also begin bearing early and produce few suckers. It grows well and reaches a final height of 10-15 feet, which depends on the cultivar used. It is very precocious compared to other semi-vigorous rootstocks, and tolerates heavy soils and difficult conditions. M7 is also resistant to collar-rot (Phytopthora cinnimoni) and fireblight. Image from Rootstocks for Apple, Washington State University. MM111 (semi-dwarf) 14 to 16. Good anchorage. These are relative terms. Suggested for trial for growers desiring a freestanding tree. Selected in 1912 from unknown parentage at the East Malling Research station in Maidstone, Kent, England. Despite being susceptible to fireblight and woolly apple aphid, it is very resistant to collar rot, produces few suckers, maintains good fruit size, and is extremely productive and precocious. Our site experiences the coldest mid-winter temperatures across all locations. G.890 is tolerant to replant disease, and resistant to fire blight, crown rot, and wooly apple aphid. It is resistant to fireblight and has some tolerance of wet conditions / phytophthora. Rootstocks that limit tree size to 15-45% standard are considered dwarf; 50-75% standard size are semi-dwarf; and anything above 85% is usually referred to as standard. B 118 is from the same Russian program that created Budagovsky 9 (B 9). susceptible apple rootstocks like M.9 and M.26 with fireblight often results in the death of the tree. M-7 rootstock dwarfs to 65% of standard size. Similar in size to vigorous clones on M9 such as Nic 29, usually most efficient dwarf rootstock. Specialist fruit trees for your orchard or back-yard. ), resistance to fire blight bacteria (Erwinia amylovora), resistance to Woolly apple aphids, dwarfing and tree branching modifications, increased precocity (early fruitfulness), increased productivity, and tolerance to apple replant disease (ARD). A semi-dwarfing rootstock 50-60% the size of a seedling (similar to M7, but slightly less vigorous in Western states). Small centre leader / spindlebush, Cordons, oblique cordons. A good alternative to G.30 if permanent support is not available. Apple Rootstocks . M.7 is a semi-dwarfing apple rootstock producing 50-60% of standard apple tree. Trees are well anchored, widely adapted, and winter hardy. 2015-41595-24254 from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The aim was to find rootstock resistant to woolly apple aphid ,a noxious insect on apple roots. The original Malling series semi-dwarf rootstock. An M7-class rootstock with good resistance to fireblight and woolly aphid, crown rot and root rot, and tolerance of re-plant disease. An Apple tree propagated on this root stock is well anchored and starts bearing fruits in 3-4 years. MM111 is one of the most adaptable of all rootstocks, and will grow in a very wide range of soil conditions. Tree size at any age will vary with the cultivar, the soil, nutrition, pruning practices, amount of cropping, and climate. It is extremely cold hardy, well anchored, and works with most soils. Characteristic Detail Description; Rootstock: MM.111 EMLA: Introduced in 1952 from a cross of Merton 793 x ‘Northern Spy’ by the John Innes Horticultural Institute and the East Malling Research Station in England. There are many to choose from, yet no perfect choice. mulched). Final Height at Maturity (feet) Spacing between Trees (feet) Spacing between rows (feet) Years to begin bearing (years) Other Information. The fruit size that M7 produces is good but not as large as an M26, or M9 rootstock. Similar to M26 but with much better resistance to fireblight, collar rot (phytophthora), and woolly aphid and therefore a better choice than M26 in warmer climates where woolly aphid can be an issue. There is likely not a “best” apple rootstock, though the replant-tolerant Geneva rootstocks (G.41, G.214, G.935, G.210, G.30, G.890) are much better than the available standards of Budagovksy 9, Mark, Malling 9 clones, M.26 and the semidwarf rootstocks. Malling 7 rootstock is slightly bigger than an M26 rootstock, and also requires staking in the first several years to establish a centre leader. At present rootstock blight is poorly understood. Resistant to fireblight, powdery mildew, moderately resistant to collar rot. Dwarfing similar to M.26 and G.11. It is susceptible to collar rot, but much less so than MM106. Slightly larger than M26, but far more productive and precocious. It is also very cold-hardy, and has some resistance to crown-rot and fireblight. St Julian A: St Julien A is the most widely-used rootstock for plums. Similar to G.890 in most respects, but tree size is more variable depending on soil and climate. It was released from East Malling and Merton research stations England. Suitable for a wide range of garden types. However not ideal for North American growers because it is not particularly winter-hardy and has poor resistance to fireblight. Small centre leader / spindlebush, Cordons, oblique cordons, Small espalier / fan, The most important dwarf apple rootstock, planted worldwide. MM106 is one of the most widely-grown semi-vigorous rootstocks. Selected in 1912 from unknown parentage at the East Malling Research station in Maidstone, Kent, England. P.18 is a vigorous apple rootstock and will eventually produce a full-size tree. Relative sizes of apple trees grafted on common rootstocks. Trees may be held to any desired height by summer pruning. Apple Rootstocks The use of clonal rootstocks for apples began in the mid-1900s. Highly resistant to fire blight, resistant to phytophthora and wooly apple aphidwith some resistance to apple replant disease and with a good winter hardiness. Suitable forms:
Cold hardy rootstock trials…I can’t wait to see what folks have been experiencing in the colder climes. An excellent choice for a small backyard. It produces a tree somewhat larger than M26, similar to M7, and much heavier-cropping than either. G.210 is a good choice for the backyard orchardist wanting a medium-size (M26-class) tree, and although staking is recommended it is not essential. It reduces bienniality with Honeycrisp. Trees tend to produce many rootsuckers. In Malling Immune series only … Seedling rootstocks (for example, Granny Smith open pollinated seedlings), although used for the rootstock, are variable in growth and are more susceptible to stress conditions, such as the effects of drought on fruit size. ALL VARIETIES GO TO SUBGROUPS. Resistant to fireblight. It is classified as having growth control similar to M.7 at about 45-55% of seedling. G.969 rootstock Mature height: Medium, 9ft-12ft Trees are moderately precocious and may lean with some cultivars and may require trunk support. The rootstocks produce few root suckers or burr knots. It is more precocious than M7 and M106. M.7 … It is a semi dwarf rootstock, slightly larger than Malling 7. Soil, climate, trellis system, irrigation type, tree spacing and scion all play a role. Half-standard, Large centre leader / spindlebush, Large fan or espalier. Plums/Damsons/Gages . A virus-free clone of M.9, denoted by the industry as M.9 EMLA or M.9 E, wa… Malling 9 (M.9) rootstock is one of the original Malling series of size-controlling rootstocks developed in Great Britain at East Malling Research Station earlier in the 1900s. Also, land grant universities do a lot of rootstock comparison. G.41 is a new rootstock in the M9-class, very resistant to fireblight and collar rot and tolerant of replant disease. Formerly known as EM VII. Apple trees on this rootstock grow 15 feet tall and begin producing fruit within five years. Suitable forms:
Very winter hardy, widely adapted. The most dwarfing of all apple rootstocks, produces a tree which will be smaller than a person standing with their arms slightly spread out. Small centre leader / spindlebush, Cordons, oblique cordons, Small espalier / fan, G.16 is slightly more vigorous than M9, and with superior winter cold hardiness. MM.111 EMLA is one of the more vigorous semi-dwarf rootstocks, producing a tree about 85 to 100% the size of seedling. Similar or slightly less vigorous than M9, but with excellent winter cold hardiness. GENEVA 202 (G.202) First Geneva rootstock resistant to woolly apple aphids, as well as crown rot and fire blight. Josh, you are close to us, so our experiences may be specifically helpful, if limited in scope. Very suitable for small gardens. Suitable forms:
Trees on M.7 EMLA produce a semi-dwarf tree about 60 to 70% as big as seedling. Quince C: Pears grafted on to the Quince C rootstock produce small trees about 8ft-10ft in height, similar in size to M26 Apple rootstock. G.11 is similar to M9 but with better fireblight resistance. An adaptable, precocious, and productive new rootstock. Apple Rootstock Info: MM.111 EMLA. Suitable forms:
For the backyard orchard, 7ft spacings would be more practical. Apple Rootstock Update 2017 Great Plains Growers Conference Matt Stasiak Peninsular Agricultural Research Station UW-Madison CALS. In the commercial apple production industry it is easy to evaluate the relative anchorage of rootstocks because growers often use a wide range of rootstocks based on availability. Produces a semi-standard tree, similar to MM111 but with much better cold hardiness. Requires regular watering / irrigation. [60% size of standard tree] This rootstock is precocious, fire blight and woolly apple aphid resistant and cold hardy. Some authorities suggest that M27 is ""difficult"" because it is so small, but in our experience growing M27 apple trees is straightforward provided you attend to their needs - regular watering, good soils, mulching and weed suppression. Walden Heights is zone 3 NE Vermont at 1700ft, and has seen -40 this decade. It has a reasonable anchorage and may require some support. MM111 can be slow to come into bearing, and is not suitable for the coldest zones. It is a winter hardy rootstock with low suckering. Rootstock: M.7 EMLA: Formerly known as EM VII. MM106 root-stock is the most popular rootstock in its category. M7 Apple Rootstock – EMLA 7 dwarfs trees to 65% of standard height, but can be kept smaller with summer pruning. Plot) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 P. 2 2 G. 6 5 B. Apple Rootstocks: Understanding and Choosing the Right Rootstock, “Small Steps to a Big Future for Massachusetts Cider Apples”, AR, BC, CA, CO, IA, IL, IN, MA, MI, MN, NC, NY, OH, OR, PA, UT, VA, WA, WI, GA, KS, ME, MO, NJ, TN, WV. Susceptible to collar rot on wet sites. Trees on M26 Apple Rootstock – EMLA 26 grows 8-12 feet tall, is very winter hardy, adapted to most soils, and well anchored though may need staking on windy sites. NC140 Completed plantings 2006 Apple Replant 2003 Apple (Golden Delicious) Physiology 2003 Dwarf Apple Rootstock 2002 Apple (Gala) Rootstock 2002 New Jersey-Massachusetts Cameo 1999 Dwarf Apple (Fuji and McIntosh) Rootstock 1999 Semi-dwarf Apple Rootstock … Unusually for a dwarf rootstock, does not always need permanent support (but probably still a good idea). Derived from the very dwarfing M27 rootstock, but noticeably more vigorous. Trees tend to produce many rootsuckers. M.9 is internationally recognized for being a superior dwarfing rootstock for apples. Can be prone to suckering. A good alternative to G.30 if permanent support is not available. It is productive and precocious, resistant to fireblight and replant disease, and for low-vigor scions can be planted at near-dwarf densities. 9 E u r o p e B. Antonovka is a seedling apple rootstock and will eventually produce a full-size tree. Easy to grow and versatile. Depending on which rootstock is used, apple trees may be broadly classified into 4 categories: dwarf, semi-dwarf, semi-vigorous or semi-standard, and vigorous or standard size. Pathak and Dhawan found that the growth of rootstock M7 and MM111 shoots could be supported on medium containing between 1 and 5% fructose, glucose, mannitol, sorbitol and sucrose, with the most effective concentration resulting in longest shoots and greatest productivity arising from 4% sucrose and sorbitol for M7 and MM111, respectively. An M7-class rootstock with good resistance to fireblight and woolly aphid, crown rot and root rot, and tolerance of re-plant disease. G.210 was developed by Cornell University as an M7 class rootstock but in practice has proved to be much less vigorous and is best considered a strong dwarf rootstock on poor soils or in high-density plantings, and a semi-dwarf on good soils or in medium-density plantings. Needs good soils, not happy on sandy soil. 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